韧美心磐

韧美心磐 (Ingarden) 蓄爨 (1893-1970) - 镱朦耜栝 翳腩耦, 铖眍忸镱腩骓桕 翦眍戾眍腩汨麇耜铋 蝈蜩觇. 喻桦 .意囵漕怦觐泐 忸 它忸忮 ("咁 猁 狃屙蜞龛耱铎, 怦 疋铪 骅珥 铐 镱 耋蜩 溴豚 铖蜞忄腭 溴耜痂矧桠睇 锺桴铍钽铎, 躅 襦 铐 聍栩嚯 皴 翳腩耦纛," - 铗戾鬣 觐眦 疋铄 骅珥 .). 1912 耠篪嚯 脲牿梃 皿耨屦 缅蝌桧沐礤, 忸 牮筱 邈 犭桄嚅 篦屙桕钼, 1916 桧蝈眈桠眍 (镱 耠钼囔 ., "黧螯 腓 礤 彐邃礤忭") 钺腭 龛 忸 责彘狍疸. 青龛爨腭 蜞赕 爨蝈爨蜩觐 .描脶屦蜞 锺桴铍钽桢 .烃腚屦. 1918 玎蜩 磬镨襦眄簋 镱 痼觐忸漶蜮铎 皿耨屦 漕牝铕耜簋 滂耨屦蜞鲨 "软蝮桷 桧蝈腚尻 理痂 铃疸耦磬". 杨耱 镥疱镨耜 皿耨屦脲 怙腩螯 漕 耢屦蜩 镱耠邃礤泐, 聍栩嚯, 黩 耦溴疰囗桢 镥疴钽 蝾爨 邈 "蠕彘 麒耱铋 翦眍戾眍腩汨" "恹疣驵弪 耋耱忮眄 镳钽疱耨 翳腩耦翳 20 耱铍弪". 武磬觐 箧 1918 囵蜩牦腓痤忄 疋铄 礤耦汶囫桢 龛 镱 潴 镱腩驽龛. 鲥腩 . 礤 镳桧 桎彖 镱玟礤泐 皿耨屦 - 邈 蝠囗聆屙溴眚嚯簋 翦眍戾眍腩汨, 蝾 忤溴, 赅觐 铐 疣玮桠嚯囫 镱耠 镥疴钽 蝾爨 "蠕彘 麒耱铋 翦眍戾眍腩汨" (1913); 牮栩桕钼嚯 邋 镱玷鲨, 犭桤觇 疱嚯桉蜩麇耜铋 蝠噤桷梃 它忸怦觐-锣瘌噔耜铋 铍. 念 买铕铋 扈痤忸 忸轫 镳屣钿噔嚯 忸 它忸忮. 1938 疱溧牝桊钼嚯 骟痦嚯 "Studia Philosophica" ( 镥疱瘥忄扈 骟痦嚯 镳铖簌羼蜮钼嚯 漕 1948). 1945-1963 疣犷蜞 咩咫腩眈觐 箜桠屦耔蝈蝈 (署嚓钼). 镥疴铋 镱腩忤礤 1950- 猁 铗耱疣礤 铗 镳屣钿噔囗 (漕 1956). 青龛爨腭 镥疱忸漕 "署栩桕 麒耱钽 疣珞爨" 枢眚, 觐蝾瘥 猁 铒筢腓觐忄 1957, 铎 驽 泐潴 桤狃囗 麟屙铎 项朦耜铋 嚓噤屐梃 磬箨.

鲥腩 桧蝈疱覃 . 镱耱屣屙眍 耢妁嚯桉 铗 桉蝈祛腩汨麇耜铋 镳钺脲爨蜩觇 铐蝾腩汨麇耜铋. 琊咫 泐潲 镱脲 邈 忭桁囗 磬躅滂腓顸 蜞赕 忸镳铖 囗蝠铒铍钽梃, 嚓耔铍钽梃, 翳腩耦翳 琨赅 , 汶噔睇 钺疣珙, 蝈蜩觇. 物镱龛痤忄 锗殇邈沐痼. 桎彘 . 觐眦 1940 - 磬鬣脲 1950- 疣耨爨蝠桠嚯 赅 犭桤觇 玷耱屙鲨嚯桤祗. 犷脲 镱玟礤 镥瘃镥牝桠 邈 桎 耱嚯 忤溴螯 镳囝狃噻 耱痼牝箴嚯桉蝰觐-镱耱耱痼牝箴嚯桉蝰觐 滂耜箴耔忭铖蜩. 杨狁蜮屙磬 觐眦屣鲨 ., 鲥腩 耠铈桠 1940-, 祛驽 猁螯 钺铉磬麇磬 赅 疱嚯 翦眍戾眍腩汨. 务眍忭 疣犷螓: "洋耱忮眄 忸镳铖" (1925), "体耱 蝈铕梃 镱珥囗 耔耱屐 翳腩耦赳觇 磬箨" (1925), "青戾鬣龛 镳钺脲戾 桎遴腓珈 - 疱嚯桤" (1929), "髓蝈疣蝮痦铄 镳铊玮邃屙桢" (1931, 疣犷蜞 镳桧羼豚 噔蝾痼 扈痤怏 桤忮耱眍耱, 牮筱 邋 桎彘 . 礤钿眍牮囹眍 忸玮疣腭 漯筱桴 疋铊 蝠箐圊), "湾觐蝾瘥 镳邃镱覃腙 桎遴腓珈 铃痍腓" (1931), "骡邃屙桢 蝈铕棹 镱珥囗" (1935), " 纛痨嚯铎 镱耱痤屙梃 桧滂忤潴嚯 镳邃戾蝾" (1935), "扬铕 耋耱忸忄龛 扈疣" ( 溻篚 蝾爨, 1947-1948, 铖眍忭铋 蝠箐 ., 磬镨襦 泐潲 忸轫 皴眚狃 1941 镱 皴疱滂眢 礅囵 1945), " 腓蝈疣蝮痦铎 镳铊玮邃屙梃. 锐耠邃钼囗桢 耢彐睇 钺豚耱彘 铐蝾腩汨, 蝈铕梃 琨赅 翳腩耦翳 腓蝈疣蝮瘥" (1960), "蓠蝈蜩麇耜桢 桉耠邃钼囗" (. 1, 1958; . 2, 1966; . 3, 1970), "襄疱骅忄龛 - 镳铊玮邃屙桢 - 鲥眄铖螯" (1966), "骡邃屙桢 翦眍戾眍腩汨 蒌祗礓 皿耨屦" (1970), " 铖眍 蝈铕梃 镱珥囗" (桤. 1971), "如 蝈铕梃 琨赅 翳腩耦赳觇 铖眍 腩汨觇" (桤. 1972), "薯桄鬻赅 麇腩忮赍" (桤. 1987) 漯. 碾 翳腩耦翳 . 耔耱屐铑狃噻簋 猁豚 篑蜞眍怅 磬 桧铄 "镳钿铍驽龛" 翦眍戾眍腩汨, 麇 蝾, 觐蝾痤 猁腩 镳邃腩驽眍 蝠囗聆屙溴眚嚯铎 桎遴腓珈 镱玟礤泐 皿耨屦 ("咉 戾 羼螯 铒疱溴脲眄 耦祉屙 蝾, 磬耜铍 耦耱蝈脲 忮顸 蜞 磬琨忄屐 桎遴腓珈 皿耨屦, 猁 腓 铐 桁 钺铖眍忄 躅 猁 钿龛 箐钼脲蜮铕栩咫 耧铖钺铎"). 愉屦骅忄 鲥朦 - 耦玟囗桢 "麒耱铋" 蝈铕梃 镱珥囗, 恹怆屙桢 "耋蜩" 怦觐泐 忸珈铈眍泐 镱珥囗 邈 怦孱狴眍耱 礤玎忤耔祛耱 赅 铗 觐黻疱蝽钽 耋狷尻蜞, 蜞 铗 蜩镟 镱珥噔囹咫钽 嚓蜞, - . 聍栩嚯, 黩 耱疱祀屙桢 礤 麇疱 蝠囗聆屙溴眚嚯簋 疱潴牿棹 怆弪 礤漕耱桄桁 桎遴腩 礤镱耔朦眍 潆 麇腩忮赅. 武磬觐 铖铉磬龛 钽 礤 铖忸犷驿噱 翦眍戾眍腩汔 铗 邈 漕脬 桉赅螯 矬蜩 疣琊屮屙 忸珥桕 耦祉屙栝, 黩 忮溴 礤钺躅滂祛耱 镥疱纛痨箅桊钼觇 疱嚯桤箦祛 镱珥噔囹咫铋 耱疣蝈汨.

橡彐溴 怦邈 "礤钺躅滂祛 镳桤磬螯 耋耱忸忄龛 疱嚯钽 扈疣 礤玎忤耔祛 铗 麒耱钽 耦珥囗" (蜞 赅 桎彖 皿耨屦 "礤 蝠遽簋 钺玎蝈朦眍泐 桉蝾腙钼囗 潴蹂 桎遴腓珈 忸怦 礤 钺玎蝈朦眍 礤祗 忮潴. 雾 祛泱 猁螯 镱螓 蜞觇 钺疣珙, 黩 蝾麝 琊屙, 玎龛爨 觐蝾痼 禧 镳桧桁噱 疱嚯 扈 赅 礤玎忤耔禧 铗 耦珥囗 , 蝈 襦禧, 镱 疋铄祗 猁蜩 噔蝾眍祉, 祛驽 猁螯 耦躔囗屙"). 泥脲, 镱 ., 礤钺躅滂祛 镳钼羼蜩 囗嚯桤 纛痨 耧铖钺 邈 (疱嚯钽 扈疣) 耋耱忸忄龛. 铎 耠篦噱, 耦汶囫眍 ., 钺磬痼骅忄弪, 黩 疱鼽 漕腈磬 桎蜩 溴轳蜮栩咫 铖簌羼蜮屐铎 镱珥囗梃, 铒桊帼祚 磬 耱痤泱 镱腠簋 铐蝾腩汨 耦珥囗 (忮潼 "噌耋痄眍 潴爨螯, - 躅  祛骓 "镱禧耠栩", - 狍潋 麒耱铄 耦珥囗桢 礤 耋耱怏弪 蝾 祛戾眚, 觐沅 铐 镱耱桡噱蝰 桁爨礤眚眍 忸耧痂蜩"). 橡钼邃屙睇 疋玷 桁 囗嚯桤 铒疱溴脲龛 镱蜩 邃桧梓眍泐 ( 赅麇耱忮 赅觐忸泐 . 恹耱箫嚯 腓蝈疣蝮痦铄 镳铊玮邃屙桢), 镱腩驽眄钽 耋狷尻蜩忭铖蜩 镳邃戾蜞 邈 铗礤皴龛 桎邋, 钺磬痼骅 疣珉梓 镱耱痤屙梃 镳邃戾蝾. 义 襦禧 耱囗钼栩 忸珈铈睇 镱龛爨龛 翦眍戾眍腩汨 赅 "镳桕豚漤铋 桉蝈祛腩汨" ( 潴蹂, 犭桤觐 囗嚯钽梓眍 镳钽疣祆 劐脲疣). 软蝈眦桀磬朦睇 耢臌 镱珥噔囹咫钽 嚓蜞 ( 蝈痨桧铍钽梃 . - 邈 "桧蝈眦桀眄 祛戾眚") 怦邈溧 "耢帼蝰" 礤觇 钺牝桠睇 镳邃戾蝾, 羼腓 疱鼽 桎弪 礤 锺桴铘桤梓羼觐 耋狷尻蝈, 襦祛 "" 赅 麒耱铎 耋狷尻蝈 忪羼蝈 镥疱骅忄龛扈 邈 耦珥囗 (忸镫铢屙梃 礤玎桧蝈疱耦忄眄铋 徨耱屙溴眦桀珥铋 桧蝈眦梃 - 篑蝠屐脲眄铖蜩 钺牝), 桁邋 戾耱 "桧蝮栩桠眍 镳铐桕眍忮龛" ( 皿耨屦 - "桁爨礤眚眍 耦珏瘀囗桢"), 磬镳噔脲眄铄 磬 镥疱骅忄龛 耦珥囗梃. 义 襦禧 . 疣珉梓噱, 镱 耋蜩, 溻 忤溧 钺牝桠眍耱 - 铐蜩麇耜簋 桉蝈祛腩汨麇耜簋. 雾蜩麇耜 踵疣牝屦桤箦蝰 桧忄痂囗蝽铖螯 镳邃戾蜞 镱 铗眍龛 桤戾眵桠 镱珥噔囹咫 镥疱骅忄龛 蝠遽箦 疋铄泐 篑蜞眍怆屙 铐蝾腩汨麇耜. 蒿桉蝈祛腩汨麇耜 漕耱桡噱蝰 蝾沅, 觐沅 "耢 桧蝈眦梃 镱珥噔囹咫钽 嚓蜞 怆弪 蜞觇, 黩 镳栾桉噱祛 桁 溧眄铎 猁蜩 赅 猁 蝾黜 蝾, 黩 溧眄铎 猁蜩 耋耱怏弪 "钺牝桠眍" ( 铐蜩麇耜铎 耢脲)". 蒡 篑腩忤, 耦汶囫眍 ., 恹镱腠 腓 镳 耦犭屙梃 镳噔桦 "铛" - "玎觌屙 耜钺觇" (赅 镱 铗眍龛 铖眍忄眄铋 磬 羼蝈耱忮眄铋 篑蜞眍怅 忮疱 耔塍 囵泱戾眚钼 "桤" 忭屮礤泐 扈疣, 蜞 镱 铗眍龛 镳邃筢彐溴龛 铒 忭篁疱眄邈 忸耧痂蜩). 褥屙眍 蜞赅 翦眍戾眍腩汨麇耜 疱潴牿 镱玮铍弪 "镥疱轵 铗 忮 镱豚汔屐铎 玎蝈 镱豚汔屐铎 猁蜩, 镱豚汔屐铋 疱嚯铖蜩", 镳桠钿栩 铟棂屙棹 铗 "忭屣铍铈屙眍耱彘" 耦珥囗棹 桤怆鬻屙棹 "滂麇耜 漕耱钼屦眍泐" 珥囗 耦溴疰囗梃 桎彘 镱珥噔囹咫 镥疱骅忄龛. 襄疱骅忄龛 (礤 蝾朦觐 忸钺, 眍 桴 疣珥铑狃噻睇 忤漕), 忸镫铢噱禧 麒耱 桧蝈眦桀磬朦睇 钺牝圊, 镳桁屦铎 觐蝾瘥 潆 . 怆腩顸 镳彐溴 怦邈 腓蝈疣蝮痦铄 镳铊玮邃屙桢 ("麒耱铄 猁蜩"). (佯邃 麒耱 桧蝈眦桀磬朦睇 钺牝钼 . 疣珉梓噱 "镥疴梓眍 桧蝈眦桀磬朦睇", 桁妣 桉蝾黜桕 疋铄泐 猁蜩 铘铕祀屙 襦扈 嚓蜞 耦珥囗, "怛铕梓眍 桧蝈眦桀磬朦睇", 钺玎眄 疋铊 猁蜩屐 铘铕祀屙桢 镳铊玮邃屙 赅 耦溴疰帙桁 皴徨 "玎溧眄簋" 桧蝈眦桀磬朦眍耱. 皖 蜞 赅 镳铊玮邃屙 钺疣睇 镥疴梓眍 桧蝈眦桀磬朦眍耱 嚓蜞 耦珥囗, 蝾 铐 桁妣 疋铋 觐礤黜 桉蝾黜桕 嚓蜞 耦珥囗, 铎 赅麇耱忮 耧铖钺睇 镳彗屙蜩痤忄螯 桧蝈眦桀磬朦睇 钺牝 赅 蜞觐恹, 怆顸, 钿磬觐, 犷脲 漕耱箫睇扈 潆 翦眍戾眍腩汨麇耜钽 囗嚯桤.) 袜 铎 箴钼礤 镱珥囗 镥疱耱噱 溴轳蜮钼囹, 耦汶囫眍 ., 蝠遽钼囗桢 忸玟屦驵龛 铗 耋驿屙栝 钺 铐蝾腩汨麇耜铎 耱囹篑 镱珥噔噱祛泐 镳邃戾蜞. 软蝈眦桀磬朦睇 钺牝 钺豚溧 铒疱溴脲眄铋 纛痨嚯铋 耱痼牝箴铋 耱囹篑铎 猁蜩 (铐蜩麇耜铋 钺牝桠眍耱), 蝠遽簋扈 疋铄泐 耧弼栲朦眍泐 囗嚯桤. 腻轳蜮栩咫铖螯, 疱嚯铄 觐眈蜩蝮桊箦蝰 耦珥囗桢, 桎遴朦睇, 眍 疱嚯铄 礤 镥疱躅滂 "徨 铖蜞蜿" 桎遴朦眍 赅 桧桷梃痼屐铄 镱耠邃龛. 橡桤磬忄 邃桧耱忮眄 桉蝾黜桕铎 镳邃戾蝽钽 耢豚 "耦玷溧蝈朦睇 铒屦圉梃 镱珥帼泐 耋狷尻蜞", 皿耨屦朦, 耦汶囫眍 ., 镥疱铞屙桠噱 痤朦 嚓蜩忭铖蜩 钽 耋狷尻蜞 镱珥噔囹咫铎 镳铞羼皴, 箫篑赅 蝈 襦禧 忸珈铈眍耱 疣耨祛蝠屙 镱珥囗 囫镥牝 邈 桉蝈祛腩汨麇耜铋 钺牝桠眍耱. 杨铗忮蝰蜮屙眍, 桧蝈眦桀磬朦眍耱 礤 羼螯 怦孱狴 纛痨 怆屙眍耱 疱嚯钽 - 耦珥囗棹.

项 禧耠 ., "镳邃戾, 磬 镱龛爨龛, 蝾沅 怆弪 麒耱 桧蝈眦桀磬朦睇, 觐沅 耦玟噱蝰 礤镱耩邃耱忮眄 桦 铒铖疱漕忄眍 麇疱 嚓 耦珥囗 桦 麇疱 祉铈羼蜮 蜞觇 嚓蝾 桉觌栩咫 犭嚆钿囵 桁爨礤眚眍 桁 桧蝈眦桀磬朦眍耱 蜞, 狍潋 猁 桴 嚓蜞 桁邋 桉蝾黜桕 疋铄泐 猁蜩 怦邈 疋铄泐 铘铕祀屙". 软蝈眦桀磬朦磬 篑蜞眍怅 耦珥囗 忸珥桕噱 礤 镳 忸耧痂蜩 膻犷泐 疱嚯钽 镳邃戾蜞, 蝾朦觐 镳 忸耧痂蜩 铖钺钽 (桧蝈眦桀磬朦眍泐) 钺牝, 蜞觐泐, 赅觐 玎觌屙 腓蝈疣蝮痦铎 镳铊玮邃屙梃 (觐蝾痤 羼螯 "麒耱 桧蝈眦桀磬朦眍 镳铊玮邃屙桢 耋狷尻蜩忭 蜮铕麇耜桴 铒屦圉栝 噔蝾疣"), 疱 - 镳铊玮邃屙梃 桉牦耨蜮, 躞漕驽耱忮眄铎 镳铊玮邃屙梃 赅 蜞觐忸. 义 襦禧 蜞觐泐 痤溧 钺牝 "襦" 桧桷梃痼弪 桧蝈眦桀磬朦眍耱 耦珥囗, "蝠遽箦" 铖钺铋 - 蝈蜩麇耜铋 - 邈 磬镳噔脲眄铖蜩 "磬 皴", 疣玮屦螓忄龛 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 蝈蜩麇耜铋 溴蝈朦眍耱, 耜豚潲忄龛 蝈蜩麇耜钽 铗眍龛, 觐蝾痤 铐 恹耱箫噱 "爨蝈痂嚯铎" 潆 铋 溴蝈朦眍耱 (邃桧耱忸 篑蜞眍怅, 溴蝈朦眍耱, 爨蝈痂嚯-镳邃戾蜞). 蓠蝈蜩麇耜 篑蜞眍怅 箧 襦爨 镱 皴徨 蝠遽箦 翦眍戾眍腩汨麇耜-疱潴牿桀眄 镳铞邃箴, 蜞 赅 邋 疱嚯桤圉 礤禧耠桁 忭 耦珏瘀帼泐 忸耧痂蜩, 眍  驽 镳铞邃箴 钺磬痼骅忄 礤疱潴鲨痼屐铖螯 钽 忸耧痂蜩 麒耱 蝈铕弪桕-镱珥噔囹咫 铒屦圉 (钺磬痼骅忄弪 "镳邃咫" - "骅珥屙睇 扈", 镳钿篥桊簋 "沐嚯", "蝾, 黩 铖蜞弪, 觐沅 篑蝠囗 怦 蝈铕梃", "蝾 扈, 觐蝾痤 禧 骅忮"). 橡铊玮邃屙桢 躞漕驽耱忮眄铋 腓蝈疣蝮瘥, - 赅 镱豚汔 ., - "镱珥噔噱祛", 蜞 赅 铐 礤桎屙蜩黜 疱嚯 溧眄铎 镳邃戾蝮, 蝠遽箦 疋铄 疱觐眈蝠箬痼彘 觐黻疱蜩玎鲨 忸耧痂蜩 (蝈 襦禧 . 疣珉梓噱 "镱珥噔囗桢" "镱珥囗桢"). 栩钽 钺磬驵弪 耧弼梏桕 祛潴耦 耋耱忸忄龛 蝈蜩麇耜桴 (桧蝈眦桀磬朦睇) 钺牝钼 镱 耩噔礤龛 赅 桧 疱嚯 镳邃戾蜞扈, 蜞 桎遴朦睇扈 耋铖扈. 铎 耢脲 . 泐忸痂 耧弼梏梓羼觐 "祛溴朦眍耱" (镳彗屙蜞蜩忭铖蜩) 蝈蜩麇耜钽 铗眍龛 腓蝈疣蝮痦钽 镳铊玮邃屙 潆 翦眍戾眍腩汨麇耜桴 铒桉囗栝, 蜞 赅 铐 镱玮铍 鲥眚痂痤忄螯 桴 忸牮筱 "镱耔朦睇" 耋狷尻蝮 玎溧, 钿眍 耱铕铐, 镳彗屙蜩痤忄螯 "溴轳蜮栩咫 铖簌羼蜮邋 镱珥囗桢" - 漯筱铋. 雾蜩黜铖螯 腓蝈疣蝮痦钽 镳铊玮邃屙 "镳铖忮麒忄弪" 麇疱 邈 耱痼牝箴眢 祉钽铖腩轫铖螯 (耱疣蜩翳鲨痤忄眄铖螯 纛痨嚯铋 耱痼牝箴), 疣玮屦螓忄屐簋 邈 忸耧痂蜩 忸 怵屐屙, .. 耱痼牝箴眍 祉钽铘噻眍耱 (镳铞羼耋嚯铖螯 赈噻桠疱戾眄铋 耱痼牝箴). 羊痼牝箴 腓蝈疣蝮痦钽 镳铊玮邃屙 溻箪屦磬, 篁忮疰溧弪 ., 铐 钺疣珞弪 镱耠邃钼囹咫铖螯 羿-鬣耱彘 邃桧耱忮 祉铈羼蜮铎 耦忪羼蝽 恹耱箫帼 "耠铄" (觐祜铐屙蝾). 软蝈眦桀磬朦睇 钺牝 疣珥 疋铊扈 囫镥牝囔-镫囗囔 (耱痼牝箴睇, 疱鲥矧桠睇, 玷耱屙鲨嚯, 嚓耔铍钽梓羼觇, 镳彗屙蜞鲨铐睇, 皴扈铗梓羼觇) 镱耱屣屙眍 恹痂耦恹忄弪 耦珥囗梃 疱鲨镨屙蜞 蝈蜩麇耜铎 忸耧痂蜩, 铗覃豚弪 嚓蜞 疋铄泐 蜮铕屙 (觐眈蜩蝮桊钼囗) 镨襦蝈脲 (躞漕骓桕铎 ..), 眍 襦 怦邈溧 羼螯 疱觐眈蝠箨鲨 ( 礤 觐眈蝠箨鲨). 陪 猁蜩轫 (疱嚯) 铖眍忄 - 耱痼牝箴 镳铊玮邃屙, 玎溧 邈 镱蝈眦栲朦眍 赅 忸镫铢屙桢 桎遴朦眍泐 (潴躅忭钽), 眍 疱嚯桤钼囗睇 铐 耱囗钼栩 蝾朦觐 嚓蜞 桧蝈眦桀磬朦眍泐 忸耧痂蜩 (黩屙), 翳泱痂痼 漕 钽 腓 赅 "礤黩", 玎觌屙眍 珥嚓钼-琨觐忸 纛痨 镳铊玮邃屙. 软圜: 桧蝈眦桀磬朦睇 钺牝 赅 镱蝈眦 疱嚯 (镳邃戾螓, 怆屙, 镳铞羼覃 溴轳蜮栩咫铖蜩) 桎遴朦睇 (耋铖蜩, 钺篑腩怆桠帼 "磬镱腠屙眍耱" 脲犟梓羼觇 钺疣珙忄龛) 耢腩 珥圜屙栝 聃屐囹桤桊箦蝰 嚓蜞 觐眈蜩蝮桊钼囗 (蝈 镱腠铗 钺爨 桧滂忤潴嚯 珥圜桁, 耢腩) 镳铊玮邃屙梃 觐黻疱蜩玷痼弪 嚓蝮嚯桤桊簋 耢臌 珥圜屙 桧蝈眦桀磬朦眍 (蝈蜩麇耜铎) 忸耧痂蜩 (黩屙梃) 麇疱 镳钿篥桊钼囗桢 桧滂忤潴嚯 珥圜桁 耢腩. 橡 铎 镳铞羼皴 黩屙 ( 耔塍 镳钿篥桊钼囗 桧滂忤潴嚯 耢腩) 铖簌羼蜮弪 漕镱腠屙桢, 忸耧铍礤龛, 桤戾礤龛, 桉赅驽龛 "桉躅漤 怆铈屙眍泐" 镳铊玮邃屙桢. ( 蝾麝 琊屙 ., " 忸耧痂蝾 耦躔囗 礤玎镱腠屙睇扈 钺豚耱 礤铒疱溴脲眄铖蜩, 觐蝾瘥 祛泱, 眍 铗睨潼 礤 漕腈睇 篑蝠囗螯 漯筱桴 忸耧痂蜩 蝾 驽 襦祛 忮. 马屮礤 忸耧痂蜩 镱漕犴 镱稃蜿 聃忄蜩螯 礤黩 桤忭, 眍 聃忄螓忄邋 耜铐耱痼桊钼囗 礤 蜞, 黩钺 聃忄麇眄铄 礤 祛汶 赅-蝾 篑觐朦珥篁 桦 忸钺 铌噻囹 耦怦屐 桦膻珙痦".) 亦觇 钺疣珙, 镳桊钿 蝈蜩麇耜钽 镳邃戾蜞 铌噻噱蝰 镱膻耥-溻箦滂眍 (疱嚯-桎遴朦眍), 黩 镳邃铒疱溴弪 "犭箧溧龛" 忸耧痂蜩 戾驿 桁 镱膻襦扈. 铎 驽 磬镳噔脲龛 疋铊 翦眍戾眍腩汨麇耜 疣玮屦眢螓 箐 溻桡嚯 .绵痱爨, 钿磬觐 . 耢妁噱 嚓鲥眚 耱铕铐 镱龛爨龛 耠铈眍-耦耱噔眍 蝈蜩麇耜铋 溴蝈朦眍耱, 觐蝾痤 耜豚潲忄弪 蝈蜩麇耜铄 铗眍龛 疱嚯桤箦蝰 桧蝈眦桀磬朦磬 篑蜞眍怅 耦珥囗. 铋 溴蝈朦眍耱 耦铗眍蝰:

1) 镱珥噔囹咫-觐眈蝠箨蜩忭 囫镥牝 (觐眈蜩蝮桊钼囗桢 镳邃戾蜞, 忸耧痂龛爨屐钽 耋狷尻蝾 赅 疱嚯);

2) 镱珥噔囹咫-疱鲥矧桠睇 囫镥牝 (镳彗屙蜩痤忄龛 镳邃戾蝾 蝠囗聆屙溴眚睇 耋狷尻蝮, 忭 邈 忸耧痂蜩 玎溧眄 桎遴朦睇 珥圜屙栝, 镳怆屐 耱痼牝箴 琨赍 镳铊玮邃屙 镱潆彐帙桴 疱觐眈蝠箨鲨 耋狷尻蝾);

3) 耦狁蜮屙眍 蝈蜩麇耜-桧蝈眦桀磬朦睇 囫镥牝 "膻犷忄龛" ("怆脲眄铖螯"), 镱玮铍栝 恹躅滂螯 玎 疣礻 聃屐囹桤爨 镳铊玮邃屙, 玎镱腠螯 "戾耱 礤镱腠铋 铒疱溴脲眄铖蜩" 躅溴 觐黻疱蜩玎鲨. 杨汶囫眍 ., "戾耱 礤镱腠铋 铒疱溴脲眄铖蜩" 磬腓麇耱怏 磬 怦艴 箴钼 耱痼牝箴 镳铊玮邃屙 耔塍 "玎珙痤", 钺疣珞屐 戾驿 恹疣驵屐 耢豚扈 琨觐 (耩邃耱忄扈 恹疣驽龛), 戾驿 "黩屙桢" "镨顸祛".

义 襦禧 镳铞羼 忸耧痂蜩 铌噻噱蝰 "耦耱噔睇":

1) 钿眍 耱铕铐, 铐 鲥眚痂痤忄 磬 礤觇 桧忄痂囗, 怆铈屙睇 镳铊玮邃屙桢 蜮铕鲱, 脲骅 镫铖觐耱 囿蝈眚梓眍耱,

2) 漯筱铋 - 铐 磬镱腠弪 桧滂忤潴嚯 耢豚扈, 脲骅 镫铖觐耱 桧蝈痫疱蜞鲨. 杨铗忮蝰蜮屙眍, 忸珥桕噱 耠铈眍 镱脲 铗眍龛 疱脲忄眚眍耱 桧蝈痫疱蜞鲨铐眍耱 囿蝈眚梓眍耱, 觐蝾痤 钺磬痼骅忄弪 桤磬鬣朦磬 礤疣忭铞屙眍耱 桧蝈痫疱蜞鲨 镱 铗眍龛 囿蝈眚桕 (觐蝾疣, 镱 耋蜩, 玎溧弪 泐痂珙眚 忸珈铈眍泐) 镳桧鲨镨嚯 "漕耱疣桠噱祛耱" 桧蝈眦桀磬朦睇 钺牝钼. 义 襦禧 躞漕驽耱忮眄 铒 铌噻噱蝰 钺牝桠眍-桧蝈瘃筢牝桠睇 觐眈蜩蝮鲨铐睇 镱 铗眍龛 桁爨礤眚眍 耱痼牝箴 躞漕驽耱忮眄钽 镳铊玮邃屙 (蝈蜩麇耜铎 钺牝). 燕祛 镳铊玮邃屙桢 镳 铎 疣耨爨蝠桠噱蝰 . 赅 "镱腓纛龛麇耜 汔痨铐" 耱痼牝箴睇 屐屙蝾 - 沐蝈痤沐眄 "耠铄" 赅 鲥腩耱眍耱, 忸耧痂龛爨屐铋 耩噻 礤镱耩邃耱忮眄, 眍 桁妣 "羿珙忸耱" 镱耠邃钼囹咫铖蜩 觐黻疱蜩玷痼桴 忸耧痂蜩.

腓蝈疣蝮痦铎 镳铊玮邃屙梃, 耦汶囫眍 ., 祛骓 恹溴腓螯 赅 扈龛祗 麇螓疱 耠:

1) 耠铋 珥嚓钼 玮篦囗栝 (忤珞嚯 桦 纛礤蜩麇耜栝 箴钼屙);

2) 耠铋 皴爨眚梓羼觇 邃桧桷, 铘铕祀桴 耱桦 礤耋 蝈蜩麇耜桢 赅麇耱忄;

3) 桤徼疣蝈朦眍-镳邃戾蝽 (耦溴疰囹咫) 耠铋;

4) 聃屐囹桤桊钼囗睇 磬汶漤 钺疣琨 (箴钼屙 怆屙眍耱 钺牝钼), 耦铗眍羼 蝈蜩麇耜桁 鲥眄铖扈 (觐蝾瘥 . 铗腓鬣弪 铗 躞漕驽耱忮眄 鲥眄铖蝈).

囗嚯桤 觐黻疱蝽 腓蝈疣蝮痦 蝈犟蝾 . 筲咫梓桠嚯 觐腓麇耱忸 忸珈铈睇 耠铄 漕 溻屙噤鲟蜩 (牮铎 腓蝈疣蝮痦 ., 囗嚯桤桊钼嚯 铎 驽 觌 蜞赕 镳铊玮邃屙 骅忸镨耔, 囵蹊蝈牝箴 祗琨觇). 洋狷尻 (疱鲨镨屙) 镱珥噔囹咫 磬镳噔脲 磬  腓蝈疣蝮痦铄 镳铊玮邃屙桢, 眍 铐 驽 "怊筲耱怏弪" 礤泐 "膻犷忄龛" (忸 "怆脲眄铖蜩"), 镳梓屐 桁屙眍 麇疱 "怊筲耱忸忄龛" 桧桷梃痼弪 耦狁蜮屙眍 桧蝈眦桀磬朦眍 (蝈蜩麇耜铄) 铗眍龛 (蝈 襦禧 蝈蜩麇耜桴 耋驿屙 铞屙赅 怦邈溧 镳邃耱噔脲眍 溻 耠 - 镥疴梓睇 铞桀磬朦睇 怛铕梓睇 桧蝈腚尻蝮嚯). 义 襦禧, 蝈蜩麇耜栝 钺牝 (磬栳铍邋 噤尻忄蝽 忸镫铢帼轳 桁屙眍 腓蝈疣蝮痦铎 镳铊玮邃屙梃) 恹耱箫噱 疱镳彗屙蜞蜩忭 潆 镱耱眄 钺耋驿噱祛 ., 磬麒磬 漕牝铕耜铋 滂耨屦蜞鲨, 镳钺脲禧 桧蝈腚尻蜞 桧蝮桷梃 镱珥囗梃, 镳梓屐 桁屙眍 麇疱 嚓鲥眚桊钼囗桢 桧蝮栩桠眍泐 觐祜铐屙蜞 镳铊聃钿栩 镫桕圉 "潆栩咫铖蜩" 镱珥噔囹咫钽 ( 蝈蜩麇耜钽) 嚓蜞, "耢囗桢" 耦珥囗 溴轳蜮栩咫铖蜩 (桎遴朦眍-疱嚯钽) "疣珈囗桢" 沭囗桷, 镱耱眄 镳钿篥桊箦禧 麒耱 桧蝈腚尻蝮嚯 篑桦桢. 武磬觐, 耦汶囫眍 ., 礤钺躅滂祛 礤 蝾朦觐 "耢铗疱螯" (镱 铃疸耦眢), 眍 "忤溴螯", .. "镱耱桡囹" 钿眍怵屐屙眍 "珥囹", 黩 桁屙眍 禧 镱耱桡嚯, ..  "黩" ( 劐脲疣 - "黩铋眍耱") 磬溴脲磬 桁爨礤眚眍 耋铖蝽铋 赅麇耱忮眄铋 铒疱溴脲眄铖螯 (桎屙蜩黜铋 鲥腩耱眍耱), 镱耱桄屙桢 觐蝾痤 羼螯, 耦狁蜮屙眍, 镱珥囗桢. 义 襦禧 "潆栩咫铖蜩" 怦邈溧 漕腈磬 聃忄螓忄螯 耱痼牝箴眍耱, 桧蝮栩桠眍, 耦铗忮蝰蜮屙眍, 漕腈眍 猁螯 镱蜩轫 恹疣驽眍. " 聍栩帼, - 铗戾鬣 ., - 黩 羼腓 禧 稃蜞屐 镳钼羼蜩 蜞觇 囗嚯栩梓羼觇 桉耠邃钼囗 觐眦 觐眦钼 镳桴钿桁 恹忸潴, 黩 皿耨屦朦 猁 赅 疣 礤 镳噔, 黩 磬 疱珞朦蜞螓 塍鼬, 蝾 禧 溴轳蜮箦 潴蹂 皿耨屦, 礤 镳铗桠 礤泐, 眍 玎 礤泐 - 桤戾 塍鼬簋 耱铕铐 镱耱痤屙桢 邈 蝈铕梃. 镱蝾 镳桎篁 漯筱桢, 觐蝾瘥 蝾驽 狍潴 箅篦螯 蝾, 黩 猁腩 皲咫囗 磬扈, 黩, 猁螯 祛驽, 猁腩 皲咫囗 镫铛. 翌沅 襦祛 溴脲 镳铊聃钿栩 溴轳蜮栩咫铄 钺铖眍忄龛, 筱塍犭屙桢 蝈铕梃 镳耥屙桢. 羼腓 镳 铎 溴腩 漕躅滂 漕 觐眙腓牝钼 蝈玷襦扈 皿耨屦, 蝾  礤黩 怙铍礤 羼蝈耱忮眄铄". "缅礤疣腓玎鲨" 恹忸漕, 镱塍麇眄 蝈蜩麇耜桴 囗嚯桤圊, 磬 怦 钺豚耱 桉蝈祛腩汨 镱痤驿噱 . 铖铉磬龛 "蝠嚆梓眍耱 镱腩驽龛 麇腩忮赅 赅 镱珥帼泐, 赅 眢驿帼泐 疣滂赅朦眍 桉蝈祛腩汨麇耜铋 筲屦屙眍耱 赅 礤磬躅泐 铌铐鬣蝈朦睇 桉蝈祛腩汨麇耜桴 铗忮蝾, 耔塍 钽 镳栳邈帼泐 "耧囫屙棹" 箨铕屙桠祚 恹蝈赅屐 桤 漕扈龛痤忄怿彘 翳腩耦赳觐 蝠噤桷梃 "觐祜脲犟 桦膻玷".

族腩忮 镱溻屦驽 铒囫眍耱 玎犭箧溴龛, 鬣耱 "泐蝾" 礤祗 耔塍 镱珥噔囹咫铋 礤筲屦屙眍耱, 祛泱 怆鬻 玎 耦犷 玷耱屙鲨嚯簋 礤筲屦屙眍耱. 武磬觐, 聍栩噱 ., 麇腩忮赅 铖蜞弪 怦 驽 "戾蜞翳玷麇耜 蝾麝 铒铕" - 礤钺躅滂祛 镳桤磬螯, 黩, 铠栳顸 磬 祉屙 扈疱, 禧, 镱 牮嚅礤 戾疱, 耧铖钺睇 铖铉磬螯, 黩 礤 铠栳噱祚 蝾, 黩 铠栳噱祚. . 祛驽 猁螯 疣耨祛蝠屙 赅麇耱忮 钿眍泐 桤 蝈 禧耠栩咫彘, 鼽 觐眦屣蝮嚯 篑桦 镱溷铗钼桦 镱麾 潆 镥疱躅溧 铗 礤觌囫耔麇耜钽 囡 疣玮栩梃 邂痤镥轳觐 翳腩耦翳 镱耱礤觌囫耔麇耜铎 邋 囡. 添钽桢 镳邃腩驽眄 . 桎彖 钺疱腓 耦怵屐屙眍 镱耱祛溴痦桤戾 耱囹篑 趔礓囔屙蜞朦睇 镟疣滂沆嚯 镳彗箪秭栝. 橡彐溴 怦邈, . 猁豚 疣琊噌铗囗 觐眦屣鲨 "觐黻疱蜩玎鲨" 镳铊玮邃屙 镳铞羼皴 黩屙, 忸 祉钽铎 镱溷铗钼桠 觐眈蜩蝮桊钼囗桢 镱耱祛溴痦桉蝰觐 蝈犟蝾腩汨: 赅 腓蝈疣蝮痦铄, 蜞 祗琨赅朦眍 镳铊玮邃屙桢 蝠嚓蝮弪 . 赅 疋铄泐 痤溧 "聃屐", - 礤耢铗 磬 蝾, 黩 "觐黻疱蝽 纛痨 镳铊玮邃屙, 镱蝈眦栲朦眍 镳桉簌桢 镳铊玮邃屙棹-聃屐, 耦耱噔 礤觐 祉铈羼蜮 忡噼祉 桉觌帼 漯筱 漯筱 镳铊玮邃屙栝", 蝈 礤 戾礤, "怦 驽 怦 桴 沭箫镟 疋玎磬 蝈, 黩 铗眍耔蝰 钿眍 蝾 驽 聃屐, 钺铉磬麇眄铋 镟痱栩箴铋" (耩. 镱耱祛溴痦桉蝰觐 祛溴朦 耦铗眍龛 "翦眍-蝈犟蝾" "沐眍-蝈犟蜞", 镳邃腩驽眄铋 署桉蝈忸 - 耢. 蔫耧铉栩桠 皴扈铗梓羼觇).

. 疣琊噌铗囗 觐眦屣鲨 "礤镱腠铗 铒疱溴脲眄铖蜩" 蝈犟蜞, 镳邃镱豚汔 礤 蝾朦觐 篑祛蝠屙桢 蝈犟蝾忸 耩邃 皴爨眚梓羼觇 "矬耱铗", 铗牮帼 "祉铈羼蜮 忸珈铈眍耱彘", 赅驿 桤 觐蝾瘥 "镳 疱嚯桤圉梃 溧弪 钿眢 桤 纛痨 镳铊玮邃屙", 眍 蝠嚓蝾怅 镳铊玮邃屙 鲥腩 ( 邈 钺牝桠眍耱) 赅 "磬泐泐 耜咫弪", 鼽 镱蝈眦栲朦睇 忸珈铈眍耱 恹琨忄 骅珥 腓 镳铞羼皴 黩屙. - 疋弪 耦怵屐屙眍 镱耱祛溴痦桉蝰觐 觐眦屣鲨 "矬耱钽 珥嚓" (耢. "象耱铋 珥嚓") 镱漉钿 . 祛驽 猁螯 疣耨祛蝠屙 赅 皴爨眚梓羼觇 镳邃忄 镱耱祛溴痦桉蝰牦 觐眦屣鲨 "铉磬麒忄龛" (耢. 午磬麒忄龛). 铎 铗眍龛 蝈犟蝾忄 皴爨眚桕 疣耨爨蝠桠噱蝰 . 赅 镳桧鲨镨嚯 礤腓礤轫: "耦镱耱噔脲龛 祉铈羼蜮 疣珉梓睇 钺腓觐, 觐蝾瘥 镳桀狃弪噱 钿眍 蝾 驽 镳铊玮邃屙桢 镳 祉钽铌疣蝽铎 邈 黩屙梃 蝈 驽 襦禧 麒蜞蝈脲, 铖钺屙眍 钺磬痼驽龛 蝾泐 羿牝, 黩 疣珥 膻滂 疣珥 铛 溧驽 钿眍 铛 镱-疣珥铎 纛痨桊簋 忤漕忸 耠铋 钿眍泐 蝾泐 驽 镳铊玮邃屙, 镳桠钿栩 磬 禧耠, 黩 镳梓桧 钽 牮铄蝰 礤 蝾朦觐 疣珥铑狃噻梃 耧铖钺眍耱彘 怅篑钼 麒蜞蝈脲 篑腩忤, 镳 觐蝾瘥 耦忮瘌噱蝰 黩屙桢, 眍, 牮铎 蝾泐, 铒疱溴脲眄铋 耧弼梏桕 襦祛泐 镳铊玮邃屙". 杨铗忮蝰蜮屙眍 铎, 翳泱疣 麒蜞蝈 桧蝈痫疱蜩痼弪 . 赅 忄骓彘 桉蝾黜桕 蝈犟蝾忸 皴爨眚桕: 镱 铞屙赍 ., 耢腩沐礤, .. "篑蝠囗屙桢 戾耱 礤镱腠铋 铒疱溴脲眄铖蜩", 疱嚯桤箦蝰 镳铞羼皴 "桉镱腠屙" 镳铊玮邃屙 麒蜞蝈脲, 嚓蝮嚯桤圉梃 蝈 耢腩恹 忮瘃栝 镳铊玮邃屙, 觐蝾瘥 " 礤 襦祛 镳遽帼 腓 镱蝈眦栲朦眍 耦耱龛" 蝾朦觐 麒蜞蝈朦 "嚓蝮嚯桤桊箦" 桴 镳铞羼皴 "翦牝桠眍泐 镥疱骅忄龛". 铎 铗眍龛 镳邃腩驽眄 . 觐眦屣鲨 黩屙 疱蝠铖镥牝桠眍 祛驽 猁螯 铞屙屙 赅 钿桧 桤 镥疴 泐, 镳桠邃 耦怵屐屙眢 翳腩耦翳 镥疱铕桢眚圉梃 铗 翳泱瘥 棱蝾疣 (耢. 棱蝾, "鸯屦螯 棱蝾疣") 磬 翳泱痼 麒蜞蝈 (耢. 昨屙桢, 暑祠铕蜞徨朦眍 黩屙桢, 义犟-磬耠噫溴龛, 义犟-箐钼铍蜮桢) 铗 镱龛爨龛 耢豚 赅 桁爨礤眚眍泐 蝈犟蝮 耧腓鲨痼屐钽 镳铞邃箴 黩屙 邈 镱龛爨龛 赅麇耱忮 觐眈蜩蝮桊箦祛泐 (耢. 项耱戾蜞翳玷麇耜铄 禧屙桢).